These machines have practically displaced Hand Carving in the manufacture of line furniture and cabinet work. When first brought out, the possibilities of the machines were but little realized, and the work performed was confined to what is known as "Surface " carving (see Fig. 5177). This class of carving is very simple and is only considered suit-able for the cheaper grades of work. 

In Fig. 5179 we show illustrations of Relief Carvings. The wood is sawed out to the desired pattern on the Band or Scroll Saw, and then finished on the Carver. The material is usually $ to + in. thick, a largo portion of it small pieces, that ordinarily would find their way to the scrap pile.
In Fig. 5180 are shown samples of Table Carvings. This work is scroll sawed from stock a to N in. thick, and finished on the Carving Machine. The ornamental work on top and bottom of Chair and Table Legs, and all similar work, can also be performed. With these machines the most satisfactory results can be obtained, at a very small expense.
(This is known also as " Old Style " carving. Can be done very cheaply and adds to the appearance of low-priced work.)
FIG. 5178. COUNTER SHAFT Counter Shaft for Sanding Lathe, Fig. 5183.
(These samples were carved in the presence of the writer. The length of bottom piece is 19 in. Time required to carve this piece was four minutes. The top piece is quite an elaborate bit of work ; time required for this was eleven minutes).
FIG. 5181.

TedsWoodworking Plans and Projects

The line of Spindle Wood Carvers presented here is somewhat different from the line shown in former catalogues. The design has been improved a little (there wasn't much room for improvement, as the machines shown in former catalogue were nearly perfect). We have added two sizes, and have discarded machine with Babbitted Boxes.
Babbitt Metal (if genuine Babbitt is used) makes excellent bearings for most purposes, but we find after much experience with Carving Machines, that the Bronze bearings last longer and give better satisfaction. These spindles should be run at from 7000 to 8000 turns per minute, for best results.
Prices include an Adjustable Counter-shaft. Weight of Countershaft 90 lbs.
No. 1 Machine, $33.00; has Spindle running in 6 in. Bronze Boxes. End of point 28 in. from column. Weight 120 lbs.
No. 2 Machine, $35.50; has 11-71 Spindle, running in 6 in. Bronze Boxes. End of point 28 in. from column. Weight 130 lbs.
No. 3 Machine, $40.00; this is the most generally useful size. We sell more of these than the others. Has II' Spindle, running in 8 in. Bronze Boxes. End of point 30 in. from column. Weight 140 lbs.
No. 4 Machine $48.00; has 1 T7 ,Spindle, running in 8 in. Bronze Boxes. End of point 34 in. from column. Weight 160 lbs.

The cut represents our No. 4 Machine mounted on a column. Can furnish any of the above machines in this way. The Column is a decided advantage over placing the machine on a wooden frame or bench. Table of any size to suit the operator can be placed upon the brackets. For price of Column Machine, add $9.00 to t h e Nos. 1 and 2 Machines, and $10.00 to the Nos. 3 and 4 Machines. Weight of Goland Brackets 200 lbs.

Designed for sanding Carvings, but will be found exceedingly useful for polishing the edges and sides of all kinds of Scroll work; in fact, if there is not a great deal of this class of work, it will answer as a substitute for a machine costing a great deal more. Has 1* Spindle with rubber and nut, which loosens or tightens the sand paper cylinders (usually a sheet of sand paper rolled up and glued together) by means of a wrench. Price, $11.50; Countershaft, when desired, $8.50 (see Fig. 5178).
For Cartdig Machine Cutters see Next Page.